AISI 431 Martensitic Stainless Steel

AISI 431 – Martensitic stainless steel – A combination of corrosion resistance, mechanical properties and machinability. 431 is martensitic stainless steel with chemical composition as C 0,12-0,22 • Cr 15-17 • Ni 1,5-2,5 is a high chromium, low nickel, high hardenability Martensitic stainless steel with high strength and good corrosion resistance, as generally supplied hardened and tempered in the tensile range 850 – 1000 Mpa (condition T), Brinell range 248 – 302. Very good corrosion resistance in general atmospheric corrosive environments, good resistance to mild marine and industrial atmospheres, resistant to many organic materials, nitric acid and petroleum products coupled with high tensile and high yield strength plus excellent toughness in the hardened and tempered condition.  431 is not recommended for use at sub-zero temperatures due to a substantial drop in impact properties consistent with most steels other than the austenitic steel types.

Complies with standards
EN 10088-3 : 1.4057 X17CrNi 16-2 – AISI 431 – JIS SUS 431 – EN10272 : 1.4057

Related Specifications

AustraliaAS 2837-1986 431
GermanyW.Nr 1.4057 X20CrNi17 2
Great BritainBS970 Part3 1991 431S29
BS970 – 1955 EN57
JapanJIS G4303 SuS 431
USAASTM A276-98b 431
SAE 51431 AISI 431
UNS S43100

Grade 431 stainless steels are martensitic, heat-treatable grades with excellent corrosion resistance, torque strength, high toughness and tensile properties. All these properties make them ideal for bolt and shaft applications. These steels, however, cannot be cold-worked owing to their high yield strength, hence they are suitable for operations such as spinning, deep drawing, bending or cold heading.

Characterised by very good corrosion resistance in general atmospheric corrosive environments, good resistance to mild marine and industrial atmospheres, resistant to many organic materials, nitric acid and petroleum products coupled with high tensile and high yield strength plus excellent toughness in the hardened and tempered condition. 

431 due to its excellent hardenability is capable of being through hardened up to Rc44, depending upon carbon content and section size. Small sections can be air cooled and larger sections oil quenched for maximum through hardness.Pre hardened and tempered 431 will also respond readily to nitriding achieving a typical surface hardness of over Rc65. The nitriding process however reduces the corrosion resistance and is therefore not generally recommended except for critical applications where the benefit outweighs all other considerations.

Used extensively for parts requiring a combination of high tensile strength, good toughness and good corrosion resistant properties.

Typical applications are: Aircraft Parts and Components, Bolts and Nuts, Fasteners, Pump Shafts, Propellor Shafts, Studs, Valve Parts etc.

Material magnetic in all conditions.

Corrosion Resistance

Grade 431 stainless steels have considerable resistance to salt water, but they are less resistant to tropical water when compared to that of grade 316 steels. Grade 431 steels have overall corrosion resistance similar to, or slightly lower than, that of grade 304 steels.

Grade 431 steels with a smooth surface finish perform well in tempered and hardened conditions.

Heat Resistance

Grade 431 steels are resistant to scaling at temperatures of 925°C in intermittent conditions, and 870°C during continuous operations. In general, these steels are not to be used at temperatures above standard tempering temperatures, owing to loss of mechanical properties.

Heat Treatment

Full anneal — Full annealing cannot be performed on grade 431 steels. This grade gets hardened even during slow cooling.

Process anneal — Grade 431 steels are heated to 620 to 660°C and then air-cooled.

Grade 431 steels are generally hardened by heating at temperatures from 980 to 1065°C, holding for nearly ½ h, followed by oil or air quenching. Complex or hardened parts of grade 431 steels can be pre-heated to temperatures from 760 to 790°C and tempered, to improve their mechanical properties. Tempering of these steels at 425 to 600°C should be avoided, owing to the loss of impact toughness at this temperature range.


Welding of grade 431 stainless steels is difficult due to the chances of cracking. It is recommended to pre-heat the materials to 200 – 300°C before welding, and carry out post-weld heat treatment at 650°C. Welding can be performed using grade 410 filler rods, but ductile welds can be achieved using grades 308L, 309 or 310 steels.


Grade 431 steels can be easily machined in their annealed state. However, it is extremely difficult to machine these steels if they are hardened above 30HRC.


Typical applications of grade 431 stainless steels include the following:

  • Laboratory equipment
  • Marine systems
  • Beater bars
  • Pump and propeller shafts
  • Nuts and bolts

Fabrication of AISI 431

Fabrication of martensitic steels is generally carried out using techniques that allow hardening and tempering treatments and poor weldability. The corrosion resistance properties of grade 431 steels are lower than that of austenitic grades. The operations of grade 431 are limited by their loss of strength at high temperatures, due to over-tempering, and loss of ductility at negative temperatures.

Mill’s certificate sample of AISI 431 – Martensitic Stainless Steel

Chrome content on AISI 431 vs. 420/410

AISI 431, 420 and 410 are the same type of martensitic stainless steel. A striking difference from AISI 431 compared to AISI 410 and 420 is the chrome (Cr) content of AISI 431 which is higher than AISI 410 and 420. Where, Cr content for AISI 431 is 15-18%, while the content of Cr content in AISI 410 is 11.5- 13.5%. Meanwhile, the content of Cr in AISI 420 is 12-14%.

Here we show the chemical compositions of grades 431, 420 and 410 where all of these grades are classified as martensitic stainless steel. You can compare the elements of Fe, C, Cr, and others.


























































Martensitic stainless steel types




Basic martensitic grade, containing the lowest alloy content of the three basic stainless steels (304, 430, and 410). Low cost, general purpose, heat treatable stainless steel. Used widely where corrosion is not severe (air, water, some chemicals, and food acids. Typical applications include highly stressed parts needing the combination of strength and corrosion resistance such as fasteners.


Contains lower carbon than Type 410, offers improved weldability but lower hardenability. Type 410S is a general purpose corrosion and heat resisting chromium steel recommended for corrosion resisting applications.


Has nickel added (2%) for improved corrosion resistance. Typical applications include springs and cutlery.


Contains added phosphorus and sulfur for improved machinability. Typical applications include screw machine parts.


Contains increased carbon to improve mechanical properties. Typical applications include surgical instruments.


Contains increased chromium for greater corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. Typical applications include high strength parts such as valves and pumps.


Further increases chromium and carbon to improve toughness and corrosion resistance. Typical applications include instruments.


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SS 316 – Austenitic Stainless Steel Grade

We know the various names of stainless steel that are included in the austenitic grade category, namely: AISI / SUS 201, 202, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 309, 310, 316, 317, 327, 347. In this article we will discuss SS 316 and SS 316L and 316H.

Austenitic Stainless Steel

Austenitic stainless steel is a specific type of stainless steel alloy. Stainless steels may be classified by their crystalline structure into four main types: austenitic, ferritic, martensitic and duplex stainless steel.

[1] Austenitic stainless steels possess austenite as their primary crystalline structure (face centered cubic).

This austenite crystalline structure is achieved by sufficient additions of the austenite stabilizing elements nickel, manganese and nitrogen. Due to their crystalline structure, austenitic steels are not hardenable by heat treatment and are essentially non-magnetic.

There are two subgroups of austenitic stainless steel. 300 series stainless steels achieve their austenitic structure primarily by a nickel addition while 200 series stainless steels substitute manganese and nitrogen for nickel, though there is still a small nickel content.

300 series stainless steels are the larger subgroup. The most common austenitic stainless steel and most common of all stainless steel is Type SS 304, also known as 18/8 or A2.

Type SS 304 is extensively used in such items as, cookware, cutlery, and kitchen equipment.

Type SS 316 is the next most common austenitic stainless steel. Some 300 series, such as Type SS 316, also contain some molybdenum to promote resistance to acids and increase resistance to localized attack (e.g. pitting and crevice corrosion). The higher nitrogen addition in 200 series gives them higher mechanical strength than 300 series

Other notable austenitic stainless steels are Type 309 and 310, which are utilized in high temperature applications greater than 800°C.

Alloy 20 (Carpenter 20) is an austenitic stainless steel possessing excellent resistance to hot sulfuric acid and many other aggressive environments which would readily attack type 316 stainless.

This alloy exhibits superior resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in boiling 20–40% sulfuric acid. Alloy 20 has excellent mechanical properties and the presence of niobium in the alloy minimizes the precipitation of carbides during welding.

Austenitic stainless steel can be tested by nondestructive testing using the dye penetrant inspection method but not the magnetic particle inspection method. Eddy-current testing may also be used.

Stainless Steel – Grade SS 316 (UNS S31600)

Austenitic stainless steel – Grade SS 316L

Chemical Formula :
Fe, <0.03% C, 16-18.5% Cr, 10-14% Ni, 2-3% Mo, <2% Mn, <1% Si, <0.045% P, <0.03% S

Grade 316 is the standard molybdenum-bearing grade, second in importance to 304 amongst the austenitic stainless steels.

The molybdenum gives 316 better overall corrosion resistant properties than Grade 304, particularly higher resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments.

It has excellent forming and welding characteristics. It is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of parts for applications in the industrial, architectural, and transportation fields.

Grade 316 also has outstanding welding characteristics. Post-weld annealing is not required when welding thin sections.

What is the difference between 316, 316L and 316H ?

Grade 316L, the low carbon version of 316 ( L=Low Carbon. ) and is immune from sensitisation (grain boundary carbide precipitation).

Thus it is extensively used in heavy gauge welded components (over about 6mm).

Grade 316H, with its higher carbon content has application at elevated temperatures, as does stabilised grade 316Ti.

The austenitic structure also gives these grades excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures.

Composition ranges for 316 grade of stainless steels.

The following is the chemical composition between SS 316, 316L and 316H



























































Mechanical properties of 316 grade stainless steels.

The following are mechanical properties (tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and hardness) of stainless steel SS 316, 316 L and 316 H


Tensile Str (MPa) min

Yield Str 0.2% Proof (MPa) min

Elong (% in 50 mm) min


Rockwell B (HR B) max

Brinell (HB) max



















Note: 316H also has a requirement for a grain size of ASTM no. 7 or coarser.

 Typical physical properties for 316 grade stainless steels.



Elastic Modulus (GPa)

Mean Co-eff of Thermal Expansion (µm/m/°C)

Thermal Conductivity (W/m.K)

Specific Heat 0-100 °C (J/kg.K)

Elec Resistivity (nΩ.m)

0-100 °C

0-315 °C

0-538 °C

At 100 °C

At 500 °C











Grade specifications for 316 grade stainless steels.



Old British


Swedish SS

Japanese JIS








58H, 58J




SUS 316







SUS 316L




Note: These comparisons are approximate only. The list is intended as a comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual equivalents. If exact equivalents are needed original specifications must be consulted.

Possible alternative grades to 316 stainless steel.


Why it might be chosen instead of 316?


Better resistance to temperatures of around 600-900 °C is needed.


Higher strength than standard 316.


Higher resistance to chlorides than 316L, but with similar resistance to stress corrosion cracking.


Much higher resistance to chlorides at elevated temperatures, with good formability


Much higher resistance to chlorides at elevated temperatures, and higher strength than 316

Corrosion Resistance

Excellent in a range of atmospheric environments and many corrosive media – generally more resistant than 304. Subject to pitting and crevice corrosion in warm chloride environments, and to stress corrosion cracking above about 60 °C. Considered resistant to potable water with up to about 1000 mg/L chlorides at ambient temperatures, reducing to about 500 mg/L at 60 °C.

316 is usually regarded as the standard “marine grade stainless steel”, but it is not resistant to warm sea water. In many marine environments 316 does exhibit surface corrosion, usually visible as brown staining. This is particularly associated with crevices and rough surface finish.

Heat Resistance

Good oxidation resistance in intermittent service to 870 °C and in continuous service to 925 °C. Continuous use of 316 in the 425-860 °C range is not recommended if subsequent aqueous corrosion resistance is important. Grade 316L is more resistant to carbide precipitation and can be used in the above temperature range. Grade 316H has higher strength at elevated temperatures and is sometimes used for structural and pressure-containing applications at temperatures above about 500 °C.

Heat Treatment

Solution Treatment (Annealing) – Heat to 1010-1120 °C and cool rapidly. These grades cannot be hardened by thermal treatment.


Excellent weldability by all standard fusion methods, both with and without filler metals. AS 1554.6 pre-qualifies welding of 316 with Grade 316 and 316L with Grade 316L rods or electrodes (or their high silicon equivalents). Heavy welded sections in Grade 316 require post-weld annealing for maximum corrosion resistance. This is not required for 316L. Grade 316Ti may also be used as an alternative to 316 for heavy section welding.


A “Ugima” improved machinability version of grade 316 is available in round and hollow bar products. This machines significantly better than standard 316 or 316L, giving higher machining rates and lower tool wear in many operations.

Dual Certification

It is common for 316 and 316L to be stocked in “Dual Certified” form – mainly in plate and pipe. These items have chemical and mechanical properties complying with both 316 and 316L specifications. Such dual certified product does not meet 316H specification and may be unacceptable for high temperature applications.


  • Food preparation equipment particularly in chloride environments.
  • Laboratory benches & equipment.
  • Coastal architectural panelling, railings & trim.
  • Boat fittings.
  • Chemical containers, including for transport.
  • Heat Exchangers.
  • Woven or welded screens for mining, quarrying & water filtration.
  • Threaded fasteners.
  • Springs.

Typical applications include:

SS 316 Equivalent Grade

316 and 316L round bar equivalent grades


  1.  The International Nickel Company (1974). “Standard Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steels”Nickel Institute.
  2. ^ “Stainless Steel”. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  3. ^ American Iron and Steel Institute. “Design Guidelines for the Selection and Use of Stainless Steels”Nickel Institute.
  4. Atlas Steels Australia

Monel K500 (Alloy K500)

Monel K500 (UNS N05500/ W.Nr. 2.4375),

Nama umum lainnya: Alloy K500. MONEL adalah merek dagang terdaftar dari grup perusahaan Special Metals Corporation.

Monel K500 adalah salah satu paduan logam berbasis nickel (nickel-base alloy) yakni paduan logam yang unsur logam utamanya adalah unsur nikel. Pada Monel selain Ni, paduan utama lainnya adalah tembaga (Cu) (paduan Ni-Cu). Di artikel kami sebelumnya telah dibahas juga material nickel-base alloy lainnya yakni Inconel (paduan Ni-Cr).

Monel K500® memenuhi berbagai spesifikasi industri dan internasional. Yakni:
UNS N05500
AMS 4676
Werkstoff No. 2.4375

Specifications:ASME SB-865, AMS 4676, QQ N 286
International Specifications:WERKSTOFF Nr 2.4375

Monel K500 dibandingkan Monel 400

Monel K500® pada dasarnya adalah versi yang lebih kuat, lebih keras dari Monel 400®. Komposisi dasarnya mirip dengan Alloy 400 tetapi dengan sifat pengerasan aging (age-hardening) yang terjadi ketika ditambahkan paduan alloy Al dan Ti.

Monel K500® dipanaskan di bawah kondisi yang terkendali untuk mengendapkan partikel submikroskopik Ni3 (Ti, Al) di seluruh material.

Peningkatan sifat mekanik (kekuatan dan kekerasan) diperoleh dengan menambahkan konten aluminium dan titanium ke dasar nikel-tembaga, dan dengan memanaskan di bawah kondisi yang terkendali sehingga partikel submikroskopi Ni3 (Ti, Al) diendapkan di seluruh matriks.

Jadi, Monel K500 merupakan penggabungan karakteristik ketahanan korosi yang sangat baik dari Monel 400 ditambah keuntungan tambahan berupa kekuatan dan kekerasan yang lebih tinggi.

Peningkatan sifat mekanik (kekuatan dan kekerasan) ini diperoleh dengan penambahan aluminium (Al) dan titanium (ti) ke dasar paduan nikel-tembaga dan dengan pemrosesan termal/perlakua panas yang digunakan untuk mempengaruhi presipitasi, biasanya disebut age hardening / precipitation hardening atau aging.

Jika dibandingkan dengan Alloy 400, Alloy K-500 ini memiliki sekitar tiga kali kekuatan luluh dan kekuatan tarik yang lebih tinggi.

Kekuatan paduan baja nikel ini tahan hingga 1200 ° F, tetap ulet dan tangguh hingga suhu 400 ° F. Kisaran titik leburnya/ melting range adalah 2400-2460 ° F.

Monel k-500 bersifat non magnetik, bahkan pada suhu yang cukup rendah.

Komposisi Kimia (Chemical Composition) Monel K-500

Limiting Chemical Composition, %, of MONEL Alloy K-500

  • Nickel (plus Cobalt) ……………………………………………..63.0 min.
  • Carbon………………………………………………………………0.25 max.
  • Manganese ………………………………………………………….1.5 max.
  • Iron……………………………………………………………………..2.0 max.
  • Sulfur ………………………………………………………………..0.01 max.
  • Silicon …………………………………………………………………0.5 max.
  • Copper …………………………………………………………….27.0 – 33.0
  • Aluminum …………………………………………………………2.30 – 3.15
  • Titanium …………………………………………………………..0.35 – 0.85
  • 63% Nickel
  • 0.25% Carbon (C)
  • 1.5% Manganese (Mn)
  • 2% Iron (Fe)
  • Copper (Cu) 27-33%
  • Aluminum (Al) 2.30-3.15%
  • Titanium (Ti) 0.35-0.85%




































Monel K500

0.25 max

1.5 max

0.5 max

27.00 – 33.00

0.5 – 2

63.00 min

0.010 max

Physical Constants of MONEL Alloy K-500 (

  • Density,
  • g/cm3 ……………………………………………………………8.44
  • lb/in.3 ………………………………………………………….0.305
  • Melting Range,
  • °F ……………………………………………..2400-2460
  • °C ……………………………………………..1315-1350
  • Modulus of Elasticity, 103 ksi
  • Tension …………………………………………………………………..26.0 Torsion……………………………………………………………………..9.5
  • Poisson’s Ratio (aged material at room temperature)………0.32

Sifat Mekanik (Mechanical properties) Monel K500


Melting Point

Tensile Strength

Yield Strength (0.2%Offset)


8.44 g/cm3

1350 °C (2460 °F)

Psi – 1,60,000 , MPa – 1100

Psi – 1,15000 , MPa – 790


Perbandingan komposisi kimia berbagai jenis Monel

Trade Name


Alloy type









Monel 400

B 127, B 164



2.5 max

2.0 max

0.5 max

63 min

Monel 401



2.5 max

2.0 max

63 min

Monel 404



0.05 max

0.5 max

0.1 max

0.1 max


Monel K-500

B 865





2.0 max

1.5 max

0.5 max

63 min

Monel 405

B 164



2.5 max

2.0 max

0.5 max

63 min

Aplikasi Monel K500

Monel Alloy K500 sangat cocok untuk pompa sentrifugal di industri kelautan karena kekuatannya yang tinggi dan tingkat korosi yang rendah dalam air laut berkecepatan tinggi. Dengan tingkat korosi yang sangat rendah dalam air laut berkecepatan tinggi dan kekuatan tinggi, batang Monel K500® adalah bahan yang ideal untuk aplikasi kelautan. Bar Monel K500® juga tahan terhadap lingkungan gas asam.

Alloy K500 Bars adalah paduan nikel-tembaga dengan kekuatan tinggi dan ketahanan korosi yang sangat baik di berbagai media termasuk air laut, asam hidrofluorik, asam sulfat, dan alkali.

Paduan Monel K-500 populer di sejumlah bidang termasuk:

  • Industri Kimia (valves/katup dan pumps/pompa).
  • Produksi Kertas (doctor blades and scrapers ).
  • Minyak dan Gas Bumi (pump shafts, drill collars and instruments, impellers, and valves).
  • Komponen dan sensor elektronik.
Monel K500 Round Bar & Rod Application Industries
  • Off-Shore Oil Drilling Companies
  • Power Generation
  • Petrochemicals
  • Gas Processing
  • Specialty Chemicals
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Pharmaceutical Equipment
  • Chemical Equipment
  • Sea Water Equipment
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Condensers
  • Pulp and Paper Industry

Penjelasan dan aplikasi nickel-base alloy atau paduan Monel K500 ini tentu belum lengkap. Silahkan bila anda ingin menambahkan informasi tambahan.

Monel and Inconel, what’s the difference?

Both Monel and Inconel are Nickel-based alloy metals. Where the main elements contained in this metal are Nickel elements. Unlike steel, steel is a metal alloy based on Fe-Ni metal elements. then what is the difference between monel and inconel?

The fundamental difference of Monel anda Inconel

Both Monel and Inconel have nickel as their primary metal. However, Monel has copper and Inconel has Chromium. Monel is a nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) alloy and Inconel is a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloy.

To better distinguish the difference between these two, we need to address the strength of their dual-primary ingredient.

The Difference Between Nickel-Copper and Nickel-Chromium

Nickel Chromium (Inconel)

Nickel and chromium together are fantastic at fending off oxidation and high-temperature corrosion. This would make them ideal for places that interact with frequently different gasses and large temperature variances.

Inconel 625 and inconel 800

Oil and Gas Extraction, aerospace, and pharmaceutical application are great examples of industries that would require Nickel Chromium or Inconel.

Nickel Copper (Monel)
Nickel Copper, however, is great for corrosion resistance. Their notable strengths would be against sea water, both hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids, as well as alkalies and harsher acids.

Monel Metal

These strengths play to the trades of chemical processing, sea refineries, oil refineries, as well as coastal structures. If you work in these fields, you will benefit from the Nickel Copper or Monel alloys.

Monel, is an alloy of nickel (Ni = 67%) with copper metal (Cu = 28%) and other metal elements ferro, Mn, and Si. The use of monel metal is much for the chemical industry, food ingredients due to its excellent corrosion-resistant properties in addition to its strength and tenacity and high temperature resistance. The monel metal can withstand physical and mechanical properties up to a working temperature of 750 ° C.

Alternate Characteristics
Regardless of heat transference and corrosion resistance, there are other factors that will affect your purchase of either.

Inconel, on average, tends to have higher yields and tensile strength. This will tend to make it greater as a structural product if you are looking to use it in chemical plants.

Additionally, while we wrote about how Monel is better when dealing with sea water and corrosion resistance, it is worth noting that Inconel 625 specifically does particularly well at resisting sea water and marine conditions, in the chance you are looking for a happy medium.

Properties and Characteristics of Monel

Physical Properties
Melting point1300 – 1350°C
Density8.80X103 kg/m3
State of matter at room temperature (normal phase)Solid
Hardness110-150 HB
Thermal Conductivity21.8 W/(m K)
Resistivity54.7X10-8 ohm-m ]
Tensile strength (annealed)550 MPa
Specific heat capacity427 J/(kg*K)
Modulus of elasticity179 GPa

Monel Alloy


  1. Resistance to deterioration makes Monel 400 ideal for use in equipment parts that remain in chemical and marine environments .
  2. For producing hydrocarbon and chemical processing equipment .
  3. In carburetor needle valves and sleeves, exhaust manifolds and other critical parts of aircraft .
  4. Making screw machine products, heat exchangers, piping systems and wind instruments .

Monel Wire

That’s the difference between monel and inconel, so we can know the difference and can choose material according to the application, function and purpose

If you have any additional questions about which of these nickel-based products will be better for you, go ahead and please contact us at the email address: We would love to sort you out!

References :


High Abrasive and High Temperature Plate for Cement Industry

OVERLAY PLATE (High Abrasive and High Temperature Plate for Cement Industry)

Overlay plate is your solution to combat premature failure in critical wear areas under extremely abrasive conditions with moderate to low impact.

Overlay supplies a wide range of chromium carbide and complex carbide overlay plates.

Typical standard formats are 5’ X 10’ and 6’ X 10’. Overlay thicknesses vary from 1/8” to ½” depending on the thickness of the base metal. Plates can also be cut to size, shaped and rolled according to customer specifications.

Typical standard formats are 5’ X 10’ and 6’ X 10’. Overlay thicknesses vary from 1/8” to ½” depending on the thickness of the base metal. Plates can also be cut to size, shaped and rolled according to customer specifications.

Overlay products provide a longer equipment life and increased production efficiency. Maintenance costs are reduced due to the extended service life and there is less downtime for equipment replacements.

Overlay products provide a longer equipment life and increased production efficiency. Maintenance costs are reduced due to the extended service life and there is less downtime for equipment replacements.


Typical applications include dragline buckets, truck bed liners, shovel buckets, fan blades, loader buckets, housing liners, dozer skins, hopper liners, motor grade liners, skirt boards, scraper liners, transition chute liners, spiral conveyors, cement mill liners, wood de-barker liners, scroll liners.


  • Very flat and smooth surface
  • Formable
  • Consistent hardness


The microstructure of OVERLAY is a mixture of high volume hexagonal




Moderate forming are available in all thickness. It is recommended that all forming should be done along with the direction of deposited. A very generous radius is required to successfully accomplish this. Suggestions of bending radius.


OVERLAY has a high chromium content, which makes it difficult to flame out. It only can be cut by Plasma; EDM; Water Knives. Experience has shown that it is a good practice to cut from the base plate side in order to avoid any of the high



If you need this abrasive plate material, please don’t hesitate to contact us :

Martensitic Stainless Steel – Corrodur 4021 / AISI 420

Martensitic stainless steels are widely used in the steam generators, oil and gas esploration, oversea petroleum platforms, pressure valves, mixer blades, cutting tools, and surgical tools and jigs.

Owing to their excellent mechanical properties. In general, these steels are used in quenched and tempered conditions.

Quenching heat treatment is carried out by cooling in oil or air followed by annealing at 980–1100 °C. Tempering is done at the interval of 200 and 700 °C [3].

The annealed Martensitic stainless steels have a microstructure containing spherical carbides in the ferritic matrix.

Since the material is metallurgical complex, the heat treatment must be accurately controlled in order to create a complete martensite structure without forming δ-ferrite and residual austenite.

Stainless steel 1.4021 is a martensitic machining bar with machinability improved with the addition of Sulphur. The Sulphur also lowers weldability, corrosion resistance, and formability to below that of its non-free machining equivalent Grade 410.

Stainless Steel – Martensitic – 1.4021 Bar Properties, Applications and Fabrication

Martensitic stainless steels are designed for high hardness, and other properties are compromised to an extent. Their functional operating temperature range is restricted by their loss of ductility at sub-zero temperatures, and loss of strength by over-tempering at high temperatures.

Alloy designations of 1.4021 is similar, but it may not be a direct equivalent to: 420, UNS42000, 1.4021, 1.4024, 1.4028, 1.4029, 1.4030, and 1.4034. It is supplied in the form of a bar.

Corrosion resistance is lower than the common austenitic grades. It offers resistance to fresh water, dry atmospheres, and mild alkalies and acids; however, the resistant is lower than equivalent non-free-machining grades. High Sulphur content free machining grades – such as 416 – are not suitable for chloride exposure or in marine condition.

Maximum corrosion resistance can be achieved in the hardened condition with a smooth surface finish. The steel has a fair heat resistance to scaling in intermittent service up to 760°C, and up to 675°C in continuous service. It is not recommended for use in temperatures exceeding the relevant tempering temperature.

Chemical Composition

1.4021 SteelEN 10088-3:2005
Chemical Element% Present
Carbon (C)0.16 – 0.25
Chromium (Cr)12.00 – 14.00
Manganese (Mn)0.0 – 1.50
Silicon (Si)0.0 – 1.00
Phosphorous (P)0.0 – 0.04
Sulphur (S)0.0 – 0.03
Iron (Fe)Balance


Physical PropertyValue
Density7.75 g/cm³
Thermal Expansion10.3 x10^-6 /K
Modulus of Elasticity200 GPa
Thermal Conductivity24.9 W/m.K
Electrical Resistivity0.055 x10^-6 Ω .m
Bar – Up to 160mm Dia/ThicknessEN 10088-3:2005
Mechanical PropertyValue
Proof Stress500 – 600 MPa
Tensile Strength700 – 950 MPa
Elongation A12 – 13 %
 martensitic stainless steel
martensitic stainless steel


Fabrication must be carried out by methods that allow for poor weldability, as well as for a final harden and temper heat treatment.

Cold working – It is not recommended, It is only suitable for minor deformation. Cracking will occur due to severe deformation.

Hot working – Hot working processes should be carried out after uniform heating to 2100-2250°F (1149-1232°C). Hot working below 1700°F (927°C) could result in cracking.

Machinability – Grade 420 offers very good machinability, the highest of any of the commonly available stainless steels. It is achieved best in sub-critical annealed condition.

Weldability – Grade 420 has poor weldability. It can be pre-heated to 150-320°C and post-heated at 610-760°C. Grade 420 coated welding rods can be used for high strength joints, where a post-weld hardening and tempering heat treatment can be carried out. If parts need to used in the “as welded” condition, a ductile joint can be made using Grade 309 filler rod or electrodes.


The main areas of applications include:

  • Automatic screw machined parts
  • Valve parts
  • Pump shafts
  • Studs
  • Gears
  • Motor shafts
  • Bolts and nuts
  • Shear blades
  • Cutlery blades
  • Surgical Instruments
  • Washing machine parts

Corrodur 4021



  4. Deutsche Edelstahlwerke

Quick Opening Closure and Pig Launcher Products for Pipeline, Energy and Petrochemical Industries

Our sourches are manufactures a family of Quick Opening Closure (QOCs) in sizes ranging from 2” to 72”. Our closures are manufactured from a wide variety of ASME approved materials including Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel (304, 304L, 316, 316L, Duplex and Super Duplex), Monel®, Inconel®, Hastelloy® and other exotic materials as specified by our customers.

Quick Opening Closure (QOC)

Our sourches can design and manufacture the complete line of closures to international standards including ASME Section VIII Division I and Division II, PD 5500 / BS EN 13445.

Our sourches closures satisfy design requirements in ASME Section VIII, Division 1, B31.3, B31.4, & B31.8. All QOCs can be designed for either horizontal or vertical application and can be equipped with such accessories as sight glasses, nozzles, drains, gauges, sampling ports and safety interlocks. Connection types including full and reduced access as well as mitred designs for inclined or declined vessels are available.

Our sourches offers the most diverse and complete QOC product portfolio in the world.

Typical Closure Applications :

  • Filters
  • Basket Strainers
  • Filter Separators
  • Decompression Chambers
  • Sand Blasting Systems
  • Pig Launcher and Receivers
  • Seawater Injection Filters
  • Carbon Filters
  • Subsea Systems
  • LNG Processing
  • Hydrocyclones
  • Metering Skids
  • Fuel Conditioning Skids
  • Containment Systems
  • Production Platforms
  • Storage Tanks
  • Manways
  • Inspection Ports
  • Reactors
  • Sock Filters
  • Bag Filters
  • Amine Filters
  • FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Offloading)
  • City Gates


T-Bolt Closures

T-Bolt Closures are designed for nominal pressure applications. T-Bolt closures are available for horizontal and vertical applications. Safety plus operating advantages and weight savings over flanged manways make our T-Bolt Closures ideal for applications such as storage tanks, mixing equipment, filters, separators, inspection ports, tower access, reactor access and hand holes on processing equipment. T-bolts can be supplied in specialty applications such as sanitary equipment, medical waste and hyperbaric chambers. Size Range 6” – 66” Pressures up to 500PSI.

Double Yoke Style

Double Yoke Style Closures are widely accepted throughout the world for applications where frequent access is required or where the blind flanges are cumbersome and time consuming. Yoke Style Closures can be equipped with operating aids to simplify the opening and closing tasks. Devices such as breakover wrenches and chain and sprocket drives are available Size range 2” – 72” Pressure range ANSI 150 – 2500.

Threaded QOC

Our sourche design is simple yet robust. Heavy duty davit assembly is furnished for effective alignment of head and hub. Components are manufactured utilizing precision CNC machining to provide accurate and
consistent dimensions. Threaded closures are economically priced with attractive lead times to meet the most demanding customer requirements. Size Range 2” – 24” pressures ANSI 150 – ANSI 900 Size Range 26” – 36” pressure ANSI 150 – ANSI 600

pig launcher adalah, quick opening closure

Tool-less® closures

Tool-less® closures are high pressure quick opening closures (QOC) supplied in the vertical or horizontal configuration. The Tool-less® is designed to be opened and closed by one person in one minute without the use of additional tools. Tool-less® closures are suitable for use on natural gas filter separators where filter element replacement requires frequent vessel access. Horizontal Tool-less® closures include double-pivot heavy duty hinge while the vertical closures can be furnished with a robust davit to raise the door once unlocked. Size Ranges 8” – 72” Pressure range ANSI 150 – ANSI 2500.


Approved Design
Standard units meet ASME VIII Div.1, ASME VIII Div. 2, PD5500 and EN13445. ASME Code Stamp with U-2A (or A-2 for ASME VIII Div. 2) partial data report can be furnished as an option. Code stamping verifies shop inspection of the closure and materials by an ASME Authorised Inspector.

European Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EC)
Technical file, submitted to vessel fabricator for incorporation into CE Marking of vessel.


PigPro Series 57

If there is anything you want to ask about Quick Opening Closure (QOCs) and Pig Launcher Products, please don’t hesitate to contact us at email:

Babbitting with Sprababbit A, a Thermal Spray Wire from Oerlikon-Metco Product

Babbitt, also called Babbitt metal or bearing metal, is any of several alloys used for the bearing surface in a plain bearing.


“Plain bearing” is a sliding bearing that receives a load through pressure. A plain bearing is often also referred to as “bushing”, “babbit” or “journal bearing”.

Crankshaft Bearing (image:

In general, plain bearings are cylinders which are halved and are called “shell” or bearing frames.

These bearings are very widely used and can be observed in various types of equipment, especially on crankshafts and crank rod bearings on vehicle engines.

Bearings can provide a low friction slip between two surface loads in contrast to other surfaces.

The movement of both can be in the form of a rotational axis (rotational movement) or linear motion.

Bearing frames are generally made of steel, cast iron, or copper alloys. The inner walls of these bearings are usually coated with a alloy of lead (Pb-base) or tin-white alloy (Sn-base) which is called a “babbit” metal.

Crankshaft White Metal Babbitt Bearing pic:

This babbit metal must be able to attach firmly to the bearing frame. As time goes by with a long service life, these pads will experience wear on the surface base metal which is influenced by various factors such as the load received is too excessive or the strength of the material itself.

In the field of maintenance, the bearing unit problem is one of the main problems, namely how to do it best repair on these bearings

Picture of bars and pigs of DuraKapp/Kapp Alloy #2 (Grade #2 Babbitt) – image credit: WillisPThomas

Referring to explained that, the original Babbitt alloy was invented in 1839 by Isaac Babbitt[1] in Taunton, Massachusetts, United States. He disclosed one of his alloy recipes but kept others as trade secrets.[2] Other formulations were later developed.[3] Like other terms whose eponymous origin is long since deemphasized (such as diesel engine or eustachian tube), the term babbitt metal is frequently styled in lowercase.[3][4] It is preferred over the term “white metal”, because the latter term may refer to various bearing alloys, lead- or tin-based alloys, or zinc die-casting metal.

Microstructure of babbitt

Microstructure of babbitt – This is microstructure of bearing alloy babbit, which consists of (10 —12) % Sb; (5,5 —6,5) % Cu, remains Sn. (Pic: Edward Pleshakov)

Babbitt metal is most commonly used as a thin surface layer in a complex, multi-metal structure, but its original use was as a cast-in-place bulk bearing material. Babbitt metal is characterized by its resistance to galling. Babbitt metal is soft and easily damaged, which suggests that it might be unsuitable for a bearing surface. However, its structure is made up of small hard crystals dispersed in a softer metal, which makes it a metal matrix composite. As the bearing wears, the softer metal erodes somewhat, which creates paths for lubricant between the hard high spots that provide the actual bearing surface. When tin is used as the softer metal, friction causes the tin to melt and function as a lubricant, which protects the bearing from wear when other lubricants are absent.

Internal combustion engines use Babbitt metal which is primarily tin-based because it can withstand cyclic loading. Lead-based Babbitt tends to work-harden and develop cracks but it is suitable for constant-turning tools such as sawblades.

The surface of the wearring that has undergone wear requires re-coating to restore the surface to its original condition.

Babbitt coating can use a variety of techniques: with casting techniques, welding techniques or spray techniques. Of the three techniques each has its own flaws and advantages.

Sample Cast and Flame Spray Component Projects –

The welding technique used is using GTAW (Tungsten Arc Welding Gas).

The babbitt coating technique using a welding technique

Our company accept orders for welding wire rebabbit with the brand Oerlikon.

The following are OERLIKON product technical specifications.


Materials : METCO Flame Wire ( Bonding Metco 405 NS, Metcoloy 2, SpraBabbitt A, SpraSteel etc. ), Arc-Spray wire, Equipments : Wire Flame Gun type 14E, Powder Flame Gun type 5PII & 6PII

Sprababbitt A is a special high grade, tin-based babbitt wire that is manufactured exclusive for thermal spray. Coatings of Sprababbitt A are particularly suitable for high speed and heavy duty bearing surfaces that required coatings of the highest possible quality, especially for critical applications.

The coatings are ductile, low in oxides and exhibit a bright, metallic appearance.

Sprababbitt thermal spray wires are designed for application using electric arc wire spray or combustion wire spray.

Oerlikon Metco Material Product Data Sheet

Tin and TinAlloy (Babbit) Thermal Spray Wires

Technical Data and Applications of Lead Sheet (Pb Plate)

Product Description Pb Sheet

Pb 99,94Cu, Accord. to ASTM B-29, B-749 BSEN 12588:2006

Chemical Composition:
0.0009% max
0.03/0.05% max
0.005% max
0.001% max
0.005% max
Other Elements
0.02% max
Lead (Pb)
Pb sheet
Lead/ Pb sheet in plate form

Elemen Lead with atomic symbols Pb is generally the most cost-effective radiation shielding material that protects against the effects of gamma rays and x-rays.

The properties of lead shielding which makes it an excellent shielding material is its density, high atomic number, high level of stability, ease of fabrication, high degree of flexibility in application and its availability.
Physical Properties
Physical Details
Atomic Weight
Atomic Number
11.34g cm
Ca-Efficient of linear Expersion
0.0000293 per c
Thermal Conductivity
34.76 wmc
Melting Point
327.4 ° C (600.65 K, 621.5 °F)

Applications Pb Sheet

Lead/ Pb Sheets are offered for many applications that include :

1. Radiation shielding
2. Laboratories
3. Hospitals
4. Dental offices and veterinary clinics
5. Construction
6. Roofing, flashing and waterproofing
7. Corrosion protection
8. Acid storage and handling
9. Autoclaves
10. Precipitators
11. Movable Lead screens
12. Sound barriers and soundproofing
13. Nuclear energy shielding
14. Tank lining
15. Vibration absorbers

Mengenal Karakteristik dan Aplikasi Plate Corten Steel

Apa itu Plate Corten Steel ?

COR-TEN” (Corrosion Resistance-Tensile Strength), Cor-Ten®, sering ditulis “Corten” saja, tanpa tanda hubung “Cor-Ten“, adalah sebuah nama merk dagang yang didaftarkan/dipatenkan oleh US Steel Corp/ United State Steel Corporation/ USS“.

Nama COR-TEN mengacu pada dua sifat yang menjadi karakteristik jenis baja ini yakni Ketahanan terhadap korosi (COR = Corrosion Resistance) dan kekuatan tarik (TEN = Tensile Strength ).

Corten Steel, selain merupakan baja yang tahan korosi pada kondisi atmosfer udara biasa / tahan cuaca, ia juga material baja yang memiliki kekuatan tarik/ sifat mekanik yang baik. Bahkan Corten Steel diklaim memberikan 30% peningkatan sifat mekanik dan lebih tahan cuaca 4 – 8 kali lebih baik daripada baja karbon konvensional.Baja Corten menjadi lebih populer selama bertahun-tahun setelah beberapa pabrikan lain mengembangkan dan  memproduksi baja tahan atmosfer cuaca sendiri.

Cor-Ten® adalah benar-benar sebuah nama merek untuk produk-produk tahan korosi yang dikembangkan oleh US Steel Corporation yang kemudian dilisensikan dan diproduksi oleh produsen baja lainnya, seperti Nippon Steel di Jepang.

Organisasi standar internasional – ASTM (American Standar Testing and Material) membuat perbandingan persamaan/ ekivalen untuk baja yang setara dengan spesifikasi Corten Steel.

Jenis Plate Corten Steel

Pada dasarnya ada dua jenis Corten yang paling umum, yakni Corten A dan Corten-B. Corten original ekivalen dengan standar ASTM A242 (CORTEN-A), sedangkan grade baru ditunjukkan dengan ASTM A588 Grade A (CORTEN-B) dan A606 untuk lembaran tipis.

Spesifikasi ASTM setara yang berlaku yakni ASTM A588, A242, A606-4, A847 dan A709-50W.

Komposisi Kimia Unsur (Chemical Compositions) Plate Corten Steel.

Perbedaan Komposisi kimia Plate Corten A dan B :

Corten A
Corten B
sumber :
Perbedaan Sifat mekanik antara Corten A and Corten B :


Strip Products

Rel N/mm²
Rm N/mm²
A50 %
Corten A
2 – 12
6 – 12
Corten B
2 – 13
6 – 40
sumber :

Corten A
cocok digunakan untuk aplikasi estetika dan tidak direkomendasikan untuk aplikasi bantalan beban yang berat. Corten-B adalah baja tahan cuaca yang lebih cocok untuk aplikasi struktur bantalan beban yang berat.

Corten B, banyak digunakan sebagai : kontainer, cerobong asap, konstruksi kereta api dan baja outdoor lainnya.

Karakteristik  Plate Corten Steel

Komposisi kimia (chemical composition) Baja Corten mengandung kadar karbon (C) kurang dari 0.2% berat, dan penambahan unsur paduan Cu, Cr, Ni, P, Si dan Mn dengan total tidak lebih dari 3-5% berat.
Baja ini tergolongan Baja tahan korosi di atmosfer udara biasa/ baja tahan cuaca. Corten steel dikenal dengan nama lain Weathering steel atau baja yang sengaja dibiarkan berkarat oleh pengaruh cuaca untuk membentuk lapisan pelindung yang memperlambat korosi lanjut akibat cuaca.Jadi, proses dikaratkan oleh cuaca ini adalah pembiaran guna baja corten mendapatkan lapisan pelindung luarnya. Proses weathering ini membuat daya tahan baja corten memiliki peningkatan ketahanan terhadap korosi secara signifikan dibanding baja non paduan / baja karbon biasa seperti baja A36 dan A572-50.
Baja Corten memiliki tekstur tampilan berkarat seperti telah bertahun-tahun terekspos cuaca. Proses weathering tersebut merujuk pada komposisi kimia unsur paduan baja ini yang diformulasikan khusus untuk awal pembentukan lapisan karat/oksida besi yang akan memberikan lapisan pelindung dari cuaca.
Nah, efek karat pada baja corten justru menjadi lapisan pelindung dari karat berikutnya, sehingga dengan lapisan oxide pelindung ini, bisa mengurangi kebutuhan pengecatan sebagai lapisan pelindung dari karat. Tampilan karat yang ditimbulkannya pun tampak menjadi bangunan yang artistis.

Baja corten mengandung elemen-elemen kimia yang berproses untuk saling menyatu dan menghasilkan lapisan luar seperti karat guna memperlambat proses korosi pada bagian dalam baja.

Warna Karat Plate Corten Steel yang Menarik.

Seperti di publis Nippon Steel dan Sumitomo Metals (, perubahan warna karat yang terjadi pada plate corten steel siring dengan lamanya di ekspos di udara ditunjukkan seperti gambar di bawah ini :

karakteristik plate corten steel


Aplikasi Plate Baja Corten

Pada penggunaannya baja corten ini paling banyak diaplikasikan pada bagian eksterior bangunan gedung, arsitektur, jembatan, gerbong kereta, kontainer, concrete mixer car, transmisi menara, tiang-tiang jalan tol, galangan kapal, dan konstruksi lainnya.

corten steel for container application
container (image credit :

Baja Corten steel ini pada mulanya diperkenalkan oleh seorang arsitek di Moline, Illinois pada konstruksi gedung John Deere World Headquarters. Arsitek tersebut adalah Eero Saarinen. Gedung tersebut selesai dibuat pada tahun 1964.

aplikasi corten steel
John Deere World Headquarters in Moline, Illinois, United States


aplikasi baja corten steel
John Deere World Headquarters in Moline, Illinois, United States


US Steel Tower  (Sumber:
U.S. Steel Tower di Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ini, dibangun oleh US Steel untuk menampilkan baja COR-TEN.
jembatan dari pelat corten steel
Abetxuko Bridge by J. Sobrino, PEDELTA, Abetxuko, Vitoria, Spain (Sumber:
Salah satu patung terkenal yang menggunakan baja corten adalah patung Chicago Picasso yang berada di bagian depan luar Dalet Center Cour (
patung chicago picasso dari pelat corten steel
Patung Chicago Picasso

Bagi Anda yang menyukai seni dan dekorasi, corten steel juga banyak dipakai sebagai lapisan dinding, lantai, konstruksi yang bernilai artistik dan dekoratif.

bangunan dari corten steel

Keunggulan Baja Corten Steel

  • Menghemat biaya finishing. Corten steel tidak menggunakan lapisan pelindung atau cat yang biasanya membutuhkan biaya tambahan
  • Perawatannya mudah. Corten steel sangat ideal digunakan pada jembatan atau struktur lainnya dengan akses yang sulit dan berbahaya, di mana gangguan masa depan perlu diminimalisasi. Pengecekan dan pembersihan adalah satu-satunya perawatan yang diperlukan.
  • Menghemat biaya perawatan. Kebutuhan perawatan dari corten steel yang sangat minimal juga berpengaruh untuk mengurangi biaya pemeliharaan operasional
  • Mempercepat waktu konstruksi
  • Tampilannya menarik
  • Ramah lingkungan
Kekurangan Plate Corten Steel
  • Corten steel sangat sensitif terhadap iklim subtropis yang lembab.
  • Jika terjadi penumpukan air, area-area yang terkena air tersebut akan mengalami laju korosi yang lebih tinggi
  • Lapisan karat yang terjadi pada permukaan corten steel dapat menimbulkan noda karat pada permukaan bidang lainnya yang dekat dengan corten steel tersebut
Catatan : 
Pengecatan dan pemeliharaan struktur yang menggunakan Plate Corten Steel akan diperlukan jika struktur tersebut terus-menerus basah sehingga tidak akan membentuk lapisan pelindung. Contohnya : di dasar struktur yang bersinggungan dengan tanah atau sebagian tenggelam.
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